Lesson 8: Expressing Your Feelings
|That was good / not good.||Yo katta desu. / Yo kunakatta desu.|
|That was funny (interesting) / boring.||Omoshiro katta desu. / Tsumarana katta desu.|
|That was delicious / bad taste.||Oishi katta desu. / Mazu katta desu.|
|That was beautiful / not beautiful.||Kirei deshita. / Kirei dewa arimasen deshita.|
|That was easy / difficult.||Kantan deshita. / Muzukashi katta desu.|
|That was effortless / hard.||Raku deshita. / Taihen deshita.|
yo i: good
omoshiro i: funny, interesting
tsumarana i: boring
oishi i: delicious
mazu i: bad taste
tsumarana i: boring
muzukashi i: difficult
kirei na: beautiful
kantan na: easy
raku na: effortless
taihen na: hard
i-adjectives - "i" + katta desu = past tense
i-adjectives are the adjectives ends with "i" when it modifies a noun.
To make it the past tense, remove ending "i", and add "katta".
To make it negative, remove ending "i", and add "kunakatta".
Examples: oishi i desu (It's delicious) / oishi katta desu (It was delicious) / oishi kunai desu (It isn't delicious). / oishi kunakatta desu (It wasn't delicious).
na-adjectives + deshita = past tense
na-adjectives are the adjectives ends with "na" when it modifies a noun.
To make it the past tense, remove ending "na", and add "deshita".
To make it negative, remove ending "i", and add "dewa arimasen deshita".
Examples: kantan desu (It's easy) / kantan deshita (It was easy) / kantan dewa arimasen (It isn't easy). / kantan dewa arimasen deshita (It wasn't easy).
|Likes & Dislikes
|I like sushi very much.||Sushi ga dai suki desu.|
|I like sushi.||Sushi ga suki desu.|
|Sushi is OK.||Sushi ga mama suki desu.|
|I don't like sushi very much.||Sushi ga amari suki dewaarimasen.|
|I don't like sushi.||Sushi ga kirai desu.|
|I hate sushi.||Sushi ga dai kirai desu.|
suki: like, be fond of
dai_: Used to emphasize the following word. Only applicable to some words such as suki and kirai, not to all.
|I'm glad. / I was sad.||Ureshi i desu. / Kanashi katta desu.|
|It's fun. / It was not fun.||Tanoshi i desu. / Tanoshi kunakatta desu.|
|I got angry. / I didn't get angry.||Atama ni ki mashita. / Atama ni ki masen deshita.|
|I feel lonely. / I didn't feel lonely.||Sabishii desu. / Sabishi kunakatta desu.|
|I was surprised. / I was surprised. (more casual)||Odoroki mashita. / Bikkuri shi mashita.|
ureshii: be glad, be pleased
tanoshii: fun, enjoyable
atama ni kita: got ungly (atama: head + ni: into + kuru: to come) Used in the past tense.
sabishii: to feel lonely
odoroku: be surprised
bikkuri suru: be surprised (sounds more casual)
|Degree of Feelings|
|It's very hot.||
Totemo atsui desu.
|It's hot.||Atsui desu.|
|It's a little hot.||Sukoshi (warito) atsui desu.|
|It's not so hot.||Amari atsuku arimasen.|
|It's not hot.||Atsuku arimasen.|
|It's not hot at all.||Zenzen atsuku arimasen.|
atsui: hot (temperature)
sukoshi: little / warito: relatively
amari: not very_
zenzen: not at all
different degree of feelings
The list above shows how to express the different degrees. Top is the most positive and the bottom is the most negative.
This rule can be applied to most cases.
"sukoshi" does not fit to some words, and "warito (means relatively)" can be used instead.
Examples: Ano eiga wa warito yokatta desu. (That movie was OK.)
|About the Environment|
|It's hot. / It was cold.||Atsui desu. / Samu katta desu.|
|It's warm. / It was cool.||Atatakai desu. / Suzushi katta desu.|
|It's clean. / It was dirty.||Kirei desu. / Kitana katta desu.|
|It's quiet. / It was noisy.||Shizuka desu. / Urusa katta desu.|
atsui: hot (temperature)
samui: cold, chilly (temperature)
atatakai: warm (temperature)
suzushii: cool (temperature)
kirei: clean (also means beautiful)
shizuka: quiet, silent
|About the Physical Conditions
|Are you well? / I'm not feeling good.||Genki desuka? / Chōshi ga warui desu.|
|Are you tired? / I'm not tired.||Tsukare mashitaka? / Tsukare te imasen.|
|Are you hungry? / I'm full.||Onaka ga suite imasuka? / Onaka ga ippai desu.|
|Are you thirsty? / I want to drink something.||Nodo ga kawaite imasuka? / Nani ka nomi tai desu.|
|Are you busy. / I have time to spare.||Isogashii desuka? / Hima desu.|
genki: being well
choshi: condition (physical and mental)
tsukareru: be tired
onaka ga suku: hungry (onaka: stomach + suku: be empty)
onaka ga ippai: full stomach (onaka: stomach + ippai: full)
nodo ga kawaku: thirsty (nodo: throat + kawaku: be dry)
hima: nothing to do, have plenty of time
|About a person
|nice person / annoying person||ii hito / iyana hito|
|gentle / cold (attitude)||yasashii / tsumetai|
|beautiful / handsome||kirei / hansamu|
|intelligent / stupid||atama ga ii / atama ga warui|
|good at cooking / bad at cooking||ryōri ga jōzu / ryōri ga heta|
ii: good, nice
iyana: annoying, unpleasing
yasashii: gentle, sweet
kirei: beautiful (about women)
hansamu: handsome (about men)
atama ga ii: smart, intelligent (atama: head + ii: good)
atama ga warui: dull, stupid (atama: head + warui: bad)
ryōri: cooking (also means dishes, cuisine)
_ga jōzu: be good at_
_ga heta: be bad at_
Japanese people tend to say the negative things indirectly. Because they try not to hurt the feeling of others, and to avoid confrontational situations.
It's better in general to use the mild expressions rather than the direct critical ones. People can take your words differently than you meant.
For example, if you say the food in the restaurant tastes bad, the person may feel guilty to chose that restaurant.
Also, be a little careful about what you hear. The person may be implying something more than the word simply means. People usually don't say "Stop it." or "Don't do it.".